Earth-mass planet in a protoplanetary disc
Jupiter-mass planet in a protoplanetary disc
Saturn-mass planet in a MHD-turbulent protoplanetary disc
Saturn-mass planet in a self-gravitating turbulent protoplanetary disc
Binary star in a protostellar disc around a supermassive black hole
Dust grains in a self-gravitating gas vortex
Just click on the snapshots to play the videos!
This animation shows the density perturbations that a planet of a few Earth masses generates in its parent protoplanetary disc. The relative perturbation of the disc’s surface density (with respect to its initial value) is displayed, in a frame that co-rotates with the planet. The planet generates (i) spiral density waves (or wakes) that propagate throughout the disc, and (ii) co-orbital density perturbations that are confined to a very narrow region about the planet’s orbital radius.
More details can be found in Baruteau et al. (2013).
This animation shows the density perturbations that a Jupiter-mass planet generates in its parent protoplanetary disc. The disc’s surface density is displayed in log scale, again in a frame that co-rotates with the planet. Compared to the case of a few Earth-mass planet shown above, a Jupiter-mass planet carves an annular gap about its orbit in a few hundred orbital periods.
This movie shows the midplane density of a weakly magnetized turbulent disc with fully developed MRI-driven turbulence. A Saturn-mass planet is located at x=0, y=3 (the animation frame is corotating with the planet).
More details can be found in Baruteau, Fromang, Nelson & Masset (2011).
This animation displays the mass surface density of a self-gravitating turbulent disc with an embedded Saturn-mass planet. The density perturbation (wake) generated by the planet is much weaker than the density’s turbulent fluctuations. The planet position is thus highlighted by a black circle. This animation illustrates the stochastic ’migration kicks’ that a planet may experience through self-gravitating turbulence; here it is an example of outward kick.
Results are shown in code units, the length unit is 100 AU and the mass unit is a Solar mass. More details can be found in Baruteau, Meru & Paardekooper (2011).
This animation displays the mass surface density of a gaseous protostellar disc near the location of an equal-mass binary star. The binary star orbits around a supermassive black hole that is about a million times more massive than the binary star. Cylindrical polar coordinates are shown in the x- and y-axes, and only a small fraction of the protostellar disc is displayed. The box size is about 3 times the binary’s Hill radius. Stars are located at the centre of the maximum density perturbations (the red spots). Note that each star is lagged by a spiral wake. The density contrast at these wakes varies over a rotation period of the binary. These spiral wakes extract angular momentum from the binary, which therefore hardens with time.
More details can be found in Baruteau, Cuadra & Lin (2011).
These animations illustrate the concentration of dust grains inside a large-scale vortex in a self-gravitating protoplanetary disc. Contours of the gas surface density are shown in black and white with polar coordinates. The location of dust grains of different sizes is overplotted with filled circles, whose color is related to the particles size (see the color bar on the right-hand side).
The following animation corresponds to disc model g2 in Baruteau & Zhu (2016). It shows that only the smallest grains concentrate around the vortex’s centre, while the larger grains are trapped ahead of the vortex in the azimuthal direction.
This animation corresponds to disc model g10 in Baruteau & Zhu (2016). In this case, the larger gas surface density implies that the vortex’s pattern frequency is slower than Keplerian, with the consequence that small grains concentrate slightly beyond the vortex in the radial direction (where the gas potential vorticity is minimum) while large grains form non-axisymmetric ring-like structures around the vortex’s radial location (where the gas surface density is maximum).